Day 1 :
- Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery, Pediatric Neurology, Child Health and Psychology, Psychiatry, Psychology and Mental Health, Pathogenesis of Cognitive Disorders
Deemed University, India
Sonia David currently working on an inter-disciplinary study concerning Media Studies and Adolescent Psychology. My research topic is "Effect of Film Therapy on Body Image Dissatisfaction Among Adolescents". I am currently working on an intervention module involving using Film as Therapy which aims at filling the elaborate research gap that is yet to be filled in the research domain.
Purpose: The study aims to explain and determine the effect of film-based counselling on the level of body image dissatisfaction among adolescents. It also aims to understand the cause of the alteration in body image dissatisfaction due to the said intervention.
Methodology: The study is a one-group pre-test post-test design conducted on 11 mixed-gender school-going adolescents between 13 and 17 years. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ-34) was used as a pre-test and post-test, and the film-based counselling intervention model was used through individual counselling sessions. Paired sample t-test was used to analyse the data quantitatively, and thematic analysis was used to evaluate qualitative data.
Findings: The results indicated that there is a significant difference between the pre-test and post-test means. Since t(11)= 9.042, therefore, it was found that the researcher is 99% confident that body image dissatisfaction was higher before the intervention and has significantly decreased after the intervention. There were five distinct themes originated from the thematic analysis. They involve acceptance, awareness, empowered to change, empathy, and reflective.
Study Implications: The paper suggests that further research on film therapy can focus on a repertoire of contexts and different cultural populations. Also, more research studies aiming at using the same to help students in life skills or even teaching core subjects in schools, such as Maths or Science can popularise the use of video-based content among children of all ages.
Keywords: Body Image Dissatisfaction, Adolescents, Film-Based Counselling, Film Therapy, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy.
Morning Star Hospital, India
Ramachandran Muthiah Consultant Physician & Cardiologist, Zion hospital, Azhagiamandapam, Morning Star hospital, Marthandam, Kanyakumari District, India completed M.D. in General Medicine in 1996, D.M. in cardiology in 2003 under Tamil Nadu Dr.MGR Medical University, Chennai, India. He worked as medical officer in Rural Health Services for 5 years and in teaching category as Assistant Professor at Madras Medical College, Coimbatore Medical College, Thoothukudi medical college and Professor at Dr.SMCSI Mission Hospital & Medical College, Karakonam, Trovandrum and Azeezia Medical College, Kollam. He published many papers in Cardiosource, American College of Cardiology Foundation, Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (SCIRP) and Journal of Saudi Heart Association. His special research on Rheumatic fever and Endomyocardial fibrosis in tropical belts, Myxomas, Infective endocarditis, apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, Ebstein’s anomaly, Rheumatic Taussig-Bing Heart, Costello syndrome and Tetralogy of Fallot.
As with other neurotropic viruses, viral entry to the brain through the olfactory bulb, the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 receptor (ACE-2), to which SARS-CoV-2 binds for entry into cells, found in brain vascular endothelium and smooth muscle and SARS-CoV-2 replicates in neuronal cells. It causes oedema, neuronal necrosis, and broad gliocyte hyperplasia. The elevated expression of the cytokine, monokine induced by gamma interferon (known as MIG or CXCL9), and with infiltration of monocytes and macrophages plus T cells are consistent with viral CNS entry, triggering the infiltration of immune cells and the release of cytokines and chemokines, which contribute to tissue damage. A vasculitis process similar to that for varicella zoster virus, in which viral replication in the cerebral arterial wall triggers local inflammation, endothelial infection by SARS-CoV-2 and stroke are consistent with a virus-associated microangiopathic process. Competitive blockage of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 by the SARS-CoV-2 virus down-regulates angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 expression leading to uncontrolled blood pressure and the enhanced possibility of cerebrovascular accidents. The SARS-CoV-2 virus epitopes bear a structural resemblance to several human proteins. Molecular mimicry between virus epitope and myelin basic protein results in autoimmune postinfectious demyelinating syndromes. Spike surface glycoprotein plays a crucial role in immunopathology. Dysregulation of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor contributes to the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Guillain-Barre syndrome is a frequently encountered neurological complication of COVID-19. Zhao and co-workers described the first patient of Guillain-Barré syndrome in a patient with COVID-19. After this, 18 more patients, of Guillain-Barré syndrome in COVID-19, have been described. Miller Fisher syndrome is a variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome and is characterized by ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and areflexia has also been described in patients with Covid-19. Treatment with intravenous immunoglobulins lead to complete or partial recovery, in the majority. A serine protease enzyme inhibitor blocks viral entry into the host cell. This phenomenon can be exploited for developing a treatment of COVID-19, in the future.
Université de Nantes, France
Carla Mezo is a Mexican second-year-PhD student in the program of Biology and Health at the Université de Nantes, France. She holds a Bachelor of Science in Biology with a minor in Biotechnology (2012) and a Master of Science in Molecular Biomedicine (cum laude, 2016) from the Instituto Politécnico Nacional (IPN), in Mexico City. From 2016 to 2018 she worked at the Laboratory of Gastroenterology and Nutrition at the Hospital Infantil de México. She has been a research fellow at the Laboratory of Cell Biology and Natural Products (2014-2016) and the Laboratory of Zoology at the IPN (2010-2012).
In addition to be a primary risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, obesity is associated with learning disabilities. However, the mechanisms underlying the cognitive impairment induced by obesity are poorly understood. Here we examined whether a dysregulation of the brain kynurenine pathway (KP) might underlie the learning deficits exhibited by obese individuals. The KP pathway is the major route of tryptophan (Trp) metabolism. It is initiated by the enzymatic conversion of Trp into kynurenine (KYN) by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). KYN is further converted to several signalling molecules including Kynurenic acid (KA) and Quinolinic acid (QA) which have a negative impact on learning. Wistar rats were exposed either to standard chow or to a free choice high-fat high-sugar (fcHFHS) diet from weaning to 120 days of age. Their learning capacities were then evaluated using a combination of the novel object recognition and the novel object location tasks, and the concentrations of tryptophan and kynurenine-derived metabolites in several brain regions determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Obese rats exhibited reduced learning capacity characterized by impaired encoding and consolidation of memory along with increased concentrations of Trp, QA and Xanthurenic acid (XA) in the hippocampus, but not in the frontal cortex and brain stem. Conversely, obesity enhanced the expression of IDO in the former regions but not in the hippocampus. QA and XA stimulate the glutamatergic system and their increased production leads to cognitive impairment. These results therefore suggest, that altered kynurenine pathway metabolism contributes to obesity-associated learning disabilities.
National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece
Paraskevopoulou Stavroula is a clinical psychologist-psychotherapist specialized in ethics in psychology, Postdoctoral Researcher at the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens and Consultant Professor at Hellenic Open University.
Despite the existence of codes of ethics, mental health professionals often find it difficult to make decisions about treating patients because their duties to patients may be conflicted. One such case is involuntary treatment for anorexia nervosa, that is, involuntary feeding of the patient without his consent. At this point the question arises to what duty the mental health professional should give priority to: the duty to respect the patient’s autonomy and the right to decide for his treatment himself or the duty to respect the benefit of the patient’s health, even if treatment decision is against his will? In order to make a therapeutic decision, it is important to take into account that a basic feature of anorexia nervosa is the patient’s distorted image of his body that can affect his ability to decide for his health. This fact leads to the question whether there is actually the concept of patient’s autonomy in anorexia nervosa and therefore the therapist’s duty to respect it or whether it is a pseudo-dilemma because the patient’s judgment is not guided by free will, but by his distorted image of his body? Despite in contemporary clinical practice respect for the patient’s autonomy is considered the highest duty of therapist, this research study concludes that moral principles cannot be considered absolute but interpretation and functional hierarchy be required depending of the specifics of each case.
University of Glasgow, Scotland
Barbora Krivankova is currently working in University of Glasgow, Scotland.
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a disabling neurological disease common in Scotland. Apart from physical disability MS causes fatigue, depression, anxiety, and cognitive decline. Neuropsychology began to be utilised for cognitive testing, psychological therapy, and other input to help patients with MS. The aim is to analyse service delivery, characteristics of patients referred and outcomes of the Neuropsychology referral.
The retrospective analysis looked at a database of 430 patients with diagnosis of MS. Data collected included patient basic demographics, MS characteristics, details of their Neuropsychology referral and outcomes, for example number of session or recorded benefit.
Results showed that 11% of patients were referred to Neuropsychology since 2017. Out of the patients referred 55% were women and 45% were men. Taking gender ratios of patients with MS into consideration, data shows that 2.3 times (p = 0.004) more men are being referred to Neuropsychology compared to women. Patients with successful referral to Neuropsychology had 1-4 sessions and 48% had a recorded benefit associated.
The study demonstrates benefit of Neuropsychology to management of MS. While identifying that small proportion reached referral. Unproportionate referral by gender was also demonstrated, inviting further analysis of the phenomena to ensure appropriate service delivery in the future.
St. John of God Hospital – Fatebenefratelli, Italy
Raffaele Pilla, Pharm.D., Ph.D., Doctor Europaeus, received his Master’s degree in Pharmacy at G. D’Annunzio University in Chieti-Pescara, Italy in 2005, where he also served internships at the Cell Physiology Laboratory and Molecular Biology Laboratory. Prior, he was an Erasmus Student at Faculté de Pharmacie de Reims in Reims, France. He received his Doctor Europaeus in 2010 from Pitié-Salpétrière Institute in Paris, France. Also in 2010, he received his Ph.D. in Biochemistry, Physiology, and Pathology of Muscle at G. d’Annunzio University in Chieti-Pescara, Italy. He was hired as a Postdoctoral Scholar in the Department of Pharmacology and Physiology at the University of South Florida in Tampa, on two research grants funded by the Office of Naval Research (US Navy) and Divers’ Alert Network. He has written and lectured widely worldwide. He has been involved in ongoing research at the University of South Florida with the use of ketone esters.
It has been recently shown that nutritional ketosis is effective against seizure disorders and various acute/chronic neurological disorders. Physiologically, glucose is the primary metabolic fuel for cells. However, many neurodegenerative disorders have been associated with impaired glucose transport/metabolism and with mitochondrial dysfunction, such as Alzheimer’s/Parkinson’s disease, general seizure disorders, and traumatic brain injury. Ketone bodies and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates represent alternative fuels for the brain and can bypass the rate- limiting steps associated with impaired neuronal glucose metabolism. Therefore, therapeutic ketosis can be considered as a metabolic therapy by providing alternative energy substrates. It has been estimated that the brain derives over 60% of its total energy from ketones when glucose availability is limited. In fact, after prolonged periods of fasting or ketogenic diet (KD), the body utilizes energy obtained from free fatty acids (FFAs) released from adipose tissue. Because the brain is unable to derive significant energy from FFAs, hepatic ketogenesis converts FFAs into ketone bodies-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and acetoacetate (AcAc)-while a percentage of AcAc spontaneously decarboxylates to acetone. Large quantities of ketone bodies accumulate in the blood through this mechanism. This represents a state of normal physiological ketosis and can be therapeutic. Ketone bodies are transported across the blood-brain barrier by monocarboxylic acid transporters to fuel brain function. Starvation or nutritional ketosis is an essential survival mechanism that ensures metabolic flexibility during prolonged fasting or lack of carbohydrate ingestion. Therapeutic ketosis leads to metabolic adaptations that may improve brain metabolism, restore mitochondrial ATP production, decrease reactive oxygen species production, reduce inflammation, and increase neurotrophic factors’ function. It has been shown that KD mimics the effects of fasting and the lack of glucose/insulin signaling, promoting a metabolic shift towards fatty acid utilization. In this work, the author reports a number of successful case reports treated through metabolic ketosis.
Alex Kiselyov is an accomplished Biotech R&D expert, with over 20 years of Pharma/Biotech and Foundation experience in drug discovery and preclinical development. He completed his Doctorate in Chemistry at Georgia State University in Atlanta followed by postgraduate studies at the Ben May Institute for Cancer Research (University of Chicago) and Columbia University (New York). He has directly contributed to over 10 clinical programs across multiple therapeutic areas including oncology, CV, dementias and cognitive disorders. He held senior R&D positions with Amgen, CHDI Foundation , ImClone/Lilly, deCODE, ChemDiv and Genea Biocells.
Bionaut Labs, LLC is developing a minimally invasive robotic microdevice designed to treat non-communicating hydrocephalus in both adult and pediatric patients. The device utilizes biocompatible microsurgical particles (Bionaut™) specifically designed to safely and reliably perform accurate fenestration(s) in the 3rd ventricle, aqueduct of Sylvius, and/or trapped intraventricular cysts of the brain in order to re-establish normal CSF flow, and thereby balance intra/intercompartmental pressure The Bionaut™ is navigated to the target via CSF or brain tissue in a minimally invasive fashion with precise control using real time imaging. Upon reaching the pre-defined anatomical target, the external driver allows for directing the specific microsurgical action. Notable features of the proposed protocol are: i) Bionaut™ access to the intraventricular target follows a clinically validated endoscopy trajectory which may not be feasible via ‘traditional’ rigid endoscopy: ii) the treatment is microsurgical, there are no foreign materials left behind post procedure; iii) Bionaut™ is an untethered device navigated through the subarachnoid and intraventricular compartments of the brain, following pre-designated non-linear trajectories as determined by the safest anatomical path; iv) Overall protocol involves minimally invasive delivery and post operational retrieval of the surgical Bionaut™. The approach is expected to be suitable to treat pediatric patients 0-12 months old as well as adult patients with obstructive hydrocephalus who fail traditional shunts or are eligible for endoscopy. Current progress including platform optimization, Bionaut™ control, imaging and in vivo safety studies of the Bionauts™ in large animals, specifically the spine and the brain of ovine models will be discussed.
San Diego State University, Brazil
Maria Luisa Gontijo Gouveia is a senior psychology major from Brazil and exchange student at SDSU. She is passionate about learning research findings and evidence-based knowledge in psychology which prevent harm and improve people’s well-being. She believes research in psychology can offer important tools and strategies regarding relevant long-term effect treatments for psychopathologies or other psychological issues.
The leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States are related to health behaviors and environmental factors. An insidious environmental issue is maltreatment or exposure to abuse during childhood, which can seriously impact cognitive development. In addition, individuals who experienced trauma may have a heightened reaction to uncertainty. The need for closure (NFC) refers to a desire for a definitive answer to a question and aversion toward ambiguity. Several authors propose that individuals who live in a complex reality need to simplify these demanding situations. This study examines the association between Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) and Need For Closure (NFC). Our primary hypothesis is that ACEs predict high NFC as an adaptive strategy to deal with chronic vulnerability after several traumas. Data from 237 undergraduates from a large California university were used. The following scales were administered: Adverse Childhood Experiences Questionnaire (Felitti et al., 1998); Need for Closure Scale (Webster & Kruglanski, 1994); and demographics. Simple bivariate correlation was conducted to explore the relationship between the first two scales' total score. In order to assess the contribution of each subtype of ACEs to a high or low NFC score, 𝜒² for independence was used. The results show that the most prevalent ACE was Familial Mental Illness (N = 90) while the least prevalent was Mother Treated Violently (N = 15). Pearson correlation coefficient obtained by the Bivariate Correlation revealed no significant correlation between ACE's Total Score and NFC's Total Score. Results from 𝜒² for independence indicate that two categories of childhood exposure had a significant results: for Sexual Abuse 𝜒²(1, N = 66) = 5.242, p = .022 and for Familial Mental Illness 𝜒²(1, N = 66) = 3.882, p = .049. Our results demonstrate that the NFC was not equivalent for all ACEs as only the sexual abuse group showed an enhanced need for closure. Results obtained using a 𝜒² for independence indicate that, given those who reported at least one ACE, the great majority were low in NFC, which contradicts our hypothesis. Additional analysis would provide researchers and practitioners insight as to respond to these patients